NET Environmental Science

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UGC NET Environmental Science

There will be two question papers, Paper-II and paper-III(Part A & Part B) paper –II will be cover 50 objective type question(Multiple type, matching type ,true/false, Assertion Reasoning type) carrying 100 marks Paper-III will have two parts Part-A and Part-B
Paper-III will have 10 short essay type question (300 words) carrying 16 marks ach. In it there will be one question with internal choice from each unit (i.e 10 question form 10 units Total marks will be 160) Paper-IIIB will be compulsory and there will be one question form each of the elective. The candidate will attempt only one question (One elective only in 800 words) carrying 40 marks. Total marks of paper-III will be 200

Paper-II & III (Part A & B)


  • Definition, principles and scope of environmental science
  • Earth, Man and environment, ecosystem, pathways in ecosystem
  • Physic-Chemical and Biological factors in the environment
  • Geographical classification and Zones
  • Structure ad composition of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere, Mass and energy transfer across the various interface material balance , first and second law of thermodynamics, Heat transfer process, Scale of Metrology, Pressure, temperature, precipitation, Humidity, radiation and wind, Atmosphere stability, inversions and mixing height, windrose
  • Natural resources, conservation and sustainable development


  • Fundamental of Environmental chemistry: Stochiometry, Gibbs' energy, chemical Potential, chemical equilibrium acid base reactions, Solubility product, solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, Unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, radio nuclides
  • Chemical compositions of Air: Classification of elements, chemical speciation, Particles, Ions and radicals in atmosphere, chemical processes for formation of inorganic and organic particulate matter, thermo chemical and photochemical reaction in atmosphere Oxygen and Ozone chemistry, chemistry of air pollutants , photochemical smog
  • Water Chemistry: Chemistry of water, Concept of DO, BOD, COD, Sedimentation coagulation, filtration , redox potential
  • Soil Chemistry: Inorganic and organic components of soil, Nitrogen pathways and NPK in soils
  • Toxic Chemicals in the environment-Air, Water: Pesticides in water, Biochemical aspects of Arsenic, Cadmium, Led Mercury, Carbon monoxide, Ozone and PAN pesticides, insecticides, MIC, carcinogens in the air
  • Principles of Analytical method: Titrimetry, Gravimetry, Colourimetry, Spectrophotometer, chromography, gas Chromatography, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, GLC, HPLC, Electrophoresis, X-Rays fluorescence, X-ray diffraction , Flame photometry


  • Definition, Principles and scope of ecology, Human ecology and Human settlement, evolution, origin of life and speciation ecosystem: Structure and functions, Abiotic and biotic components, energy flows, food chains, Food, web, Ecological pyramids, types and diversity Ecological succession, population, community ecology ad Parasitism, Preypredator relationships
  • Common Flora and fauna in India
  • Aquatic: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Macrophytes
  • terrestrial: forest
  • Endangere and Threatened Species
  • Biodiversity and it's conservation: definition, Hotspots of biodiversity, Strategies for biodiversity conservation, National and Sanctuaries, gene pool
  • Micro flora of Atmosphere: Air Sampling techniques, Identification of aeroallergens, Air-borne disease and allergies
  • Environmental Biotechnology : fermentation Technology, sericulture technology, Biofertilizer technology


  • environmental geosciences: Fundamental Concepts
  • the earth system and Biosphere: Conservation of matter in various geosphere-lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, energy budget of the earth, earth's environment, and seasons. ecosystems flow of energy and matter, coexistent in communities-Food webs, Earth's major
  • ecosystems-terrestrial and aquatic, General relationship between landscape, biomes and climate, Climate of India, Indian Monsoon, nino, Droughts, tropical cyclones and western Disturbances
  • Earth Process and Geological hazards " Earth's process, Concept of residences and rate of natural cycles, Catastrophic geological hazard, Study of floods, landslide, earthquakes, volcanism and avalanche, prediction and perception of the hazards and adjustment to hazardous activities
  • Mineral Resources ad environment: Global Water Balance, Ice sheets and fluctuating of sea levels, Origin and composition of seawater, hydrological cycle, factor influencing the surface water, Types of Water, Resources of Ocean, Oceans pollution by toxic wastes, Human use of surface water and ground water, Ground water pollution
  • Land use Planning: The plan use plan, Soil Surveys in relation to land use planning, Methods of site selection and evaluation
  • environmental; geochemistry : Concept t of major , trace and REE, Classification pf the trace elements, Mobility of trace elements, geochemical cycles, Biogeological factors in environmental health, Human use, Trace elements, ad health, possible effects of some unbalance elements. Diseases induces by human use of land
  • Principles of remote sensing and it's application of environmental science
  • application of GIS in environmental Management


  • Sun as source of energy, Solar radiation and it's spectral characteristics, Fossils fuels-classification, compositions, Physic-chemical chrematistics and energy content of coal, Petroleum and natural gas, Principles of generation of hydroelectric power, tidal, Ocean thermal energy conversion, Wind, Geothermal energy, Solar collector, Photovoltaic, solar pond, nuclear energy-Fission and fusion, magneto hydrodynamic power, Bioenergy-energy from biomass and biogas, Anaerobic digestion, energy use pattern in different parts of the World Environmental implication of energy uses, CO2 emissions, global warming , air and thermal palliation , radioactive waste and radioactivity form nuclear reactors, Impacts of large scale exploitation of Solar , Wind , Hydro and Ocean energy


  • AIR: Natural and anthropogenic source of pollution, Primary and Secondary pollutants , Transport and diffusion of pollutants, gas laws governing the behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere, Methods of monitoring and control of air pollution SO2, NOx, CO, SPM, effects of pollutant on human beings, plants animals, material and on climate, Acid rain, Air Quality standards
  • Water: types, Sources and consequences of water pollution, Physio-chemical and Bacteriological sampling and analysis of water quality, Standards, Sewage waste water treatment and recycling .Water quality standards
  • Soil: Physio-chemical and Bacteriological sampling as analysis of soil quality, Soil pollution control, Industrial waste effluents, and heavy metals Their interaction with soil components, Soil microorganism and their functions, Degradation of different insecticides, fungicides and weedcides in soil, Different kind of Synthetic fertilizer (NP& K) and their interaction with different component of soil
  • Noise: Sources of noise pollution Measurements of noise and indices, effect of metrological parameters on noise propagation, Noise exposure levels and Standards. Noise control and battement measures. Impact of noise on human health
  • Marine: Sources of Marine pollution and control, Criteria employed for disposal of pollutants in marine sytem-cosat; management
  • Radioactive and thermal Pollution


  • Introduction to environmental impact analysis
  • environmental impact assessment and environmental Management Plan
  • EIA guidelines 1994. Noticification of Government of India
  • Impact Assessment Methodologies
  • generalized approach to impact analysis
  • Procedure for reviewing environmental impact analysis and statement
  • Guidelines for Environmental Audit
  • Introduction to environmental Planning
  • Base line information and prediction( land, water, atmosphere, energy etc)
  • restoration and rehabitation technologies
  • Land use policy for India
  • Urban planning for India
  • Rural planning and Land use pattern
  • Concept and strategies of sustainable development
  • Cost-Benefit analysis
  • Environmental priorities in India and Sustainable development


  • Sources and generation of solid waste, their characteristics, chemical composition and classification, Different method of disposal and management of solid waste ( Hospital Waste and Hazardous waste) recycling of waste material. Waste minimization technologies
  • Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Rule, 1989, resource Management, Disasters Management and Risk analysis
  • Environment protection-issues and problems, International and national efforts for environment Protection. Provision of constitution of India regarding Environment (Article 48A and 58A)
  • Environmental Policy resolution, Legislation , Public Policy Strategies in pollution control, Wildlife Protection Act amended 1991, Forest conservation act, 1980 , Indian Forest Act (Revised) 1982, Air( Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1981 as amended by Amendment Act 1987 and rule 1982, Motor vehicle Act, 19888, the water ( Prevention and control Pollution) Act, 1974 as amended up to 1988 and rules 1975, The environmental ( Protection ) Act, 1986 and Rules 1986
  • Scheme of labeling of environment friendly product (Eco mark), Public liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Rules 1991


  • Basic elements and tool of Statistical analysis, Probability, assembling, measurement and distribution of attributes, Distribution-Normal t and x, Poisson and Binomial Arithmetic, geometric and Harmonic means, Matrices, Simultaneous linear equation tests of hypothesis and significance
  • Introduction to environmental system analysis, Approaches to development of model, Liner simple and multiple regression model, validation and forecasting, Model of population growth and interaction, Lotka-Voterra model, Leslie's matrix model, point source stream pollution model, box model Gaussian plume model


  • Environmental education and Awareness
  • Environmental ethics Global imperatives
  • Global environmental problems-Ozone depletion, global warming and climatic change
  • current environmental issues in India
  • Context: Narmada Dam, Tehri Dam, Almethi Dam, Soil errosion, Formation and reclamation of Usra, Alkaline and Saline Soil
  • Waste lands and their reclamation
  • Desertification and it's control
  • Vehicular pollution and urban air quality
  • Depletion of Natural Resources
  • Biodiversity conservation and Agenda-21
  • Waste disposal, recycling and power generation, Fly ash utilization
  • water Crises-conservation of water
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Eutrophication and restoration of Indian lakes
  • Rain water harvesting
  • Wet lands conservation
  • Epidemiological issues (i.e Goitre, Fluorosis, Arsenic)